The Cobalt/Thorium Beta-Control Nuclear Generator

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Video: The discovery of capacitance-field control of beta decay

The Quantum Open-Energy Integral and its Application to the Asymmetrical Nuclear Capacitor

Thursday, June 25, 2015

Review of NMR and Primitive Quantum Mechanics
To: Stivep Niepodam


REVIEW OF THE MACFREEY ARTICLE
http://www.free-energy-info.tuks.nl/McFreey.pdf

The McFreey article you asked me to review is interesting in that it attempts to relate beta decay with  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) as a source for the overunity energy devices such as you are experimenting upon. However, it also reveals someone caught in the “fog” of primitive quantum mechanics who will never arrive at actual explanations. The best way to remove this fog is to review what NMR actually is.

NMR is the precession frequency of proton spin within a magnetic field. The axis of a spinning object within an effecting field “wobbles” in a circular pattern known as “precession.”  The best way to understand the factors controlling precession frequency is to consider a gyroscope spinning within the earth’s gravitational field. If the gyroscope is something like a bicycle wheel, the axis of the spinning wheel can be set horizontally and suspended by one pole of the axis. It can hold this horizontal position while supporting only the one side of the axis. However, the “free” pole of the axis will rotate in a circular motion which is known as “precession.”

The frequency of this precession is the rate of circular motion over time. This rate is determined by two factors, the strength of the field and the rate of spin. Since the gravitational field at the earth’s surface is a constant (9.8 m/sec^2), the only factor affecting precession frequency for our horizontal gyroscope is the spin frequency of the device. The faster the gyroscope is spinning, the greater will be the precession frequency (and the narrower the circular motion).

A spinning nuclear proton within an externally applied magnetic field also has a precession frequency. The formula for this proton precession frequency is called the “Lamor frequency.”  It is measured by inserting a target within a magnetic coil. However, not all materials are accessible. Hydrogen bonded materials are the best, with water being the prime example. The Lamor frequency is measured by aligning the atoms in the coil’s magnetic field, turning the field off and measuring the time of an induction current which is produced  by the retained magnetic field of the aligned target atoms. As the atoms “relax” this field,the current disappears. The time of this relaxation is known as “T-1.” “Note that the rates of T-1 relaxation (i.e., 1/T-1) are generally strongly dependent on the NMR frequency” (Wikipedia).

However, the Lamor formula for precession spin frequency eliminated the most important factor, that of particle spin rate.  This was due to an unrealistic and non-proven assumption about proton spin upon the part of primitive quantum mechanics. Although proton spin rates have long been known to be associated with material temperature, primitive quantum mechanics imposed their own quantum numbers of “1/2” spins for each material. That is, proton spin was always a constant for any material as assigned by primitive quantum mechanics. The McFreey article stated: “[The overunity devices] are, in effect, conversion devices, converting excess energy of the nuclei to electricity and/or heat. In these devices, the fuel materials tend to be selected such as to have a non-zero spin, typically: copper, brass, aluminum, alloys of iron and the like.” The proton spin for cobalt, for example, is said to be “5/2,” a proton spin rate which is alleged to be shared by all cobalt protons at all temperatures.

This quantum mechanical imposition of a constant proton spin rate, eliminated spin rate as a factor in NMR precession frequency.The Lamor formula only has two factors: a “gamma factor” which is the procession frequency of any material per unit of magnetic field strength times the the strength of the field. There is no allowance for variance in proton spin frequency allowed by primitive quantum mechanics. The only reason that NMR measurements have been able to give consistent reading while eliminating the actual proton spin factor is because the measurements are taken under lab conditions of very similar ambient temperature conditions.  

Blinded by their own self-imposed ignorance, primitive quantum mechanics are incapable of understanding why radio waves can interact with NMR precession frequencies. They simply cannot understand how electromagnetic radio wave can  reinforce proton precession spin energy states. They do not understand that the capacitance field produced by the nuclear magnetic current is set at 90° to the magnetic field produced by the external field-aligned electrons, thus fulfilling Maxwell’s condition for the existence of an electromagnetic wave. They do not understand that the nuclear precession frequency “pulses” the nuclear electric (capacitance) field producing an electromagnetic wave at its frequency.

With an inadequate Lamor precession frequency formula always measured under similar lab ambient temperature conditions, the “constant” material frequency energy state will always be reinforced by a “constant” amount from electromagnetic wave imposition. McFreey states: “…..after many experiments, the conclusion was that the magnetic resonance alone, i.e. flipping of nuclei (transitions between various states of nuclear precession) with radio frequency, may only influence extremely unstable nuclei.” The radio wave imposition only “flipped the nuclei” producing a “transition” for the nuclear procession. The electromagnetic wave did not reinforce the precession energy state through the mechanism of the intersecting electric and magnetic fields produced by the atom; a reinforcement which would change in intensity under different temperature induced proton spin rates.

Because primitive quantum mechanics is unaware of the structural relationship between atomic fields and electromagnetic waves, they believe that other forms of waves, specifically sound waves would also produce the alleged “transitions” by “flipping the nucleus” generating a new orientation relative to the external magnetic field and creating a new energy state. This is, of course, utter nonsense and makes the bulk of the McFreey article nonsense as well.  

  
6:20 pm mdt          Comments

NMR and the Failure of Primitive Quantum Mechanics
he McFreey article you asked me to review is interesting in that it attempts to relate beta decay with  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) as a source for the overunity energy devices such as you are experimenting upon. However, it also reveals someone caught in the “fog” of primitive quantum mechanics who will never arrive at actual explanations. The best way to remove this fog is to review what NMR actually is.

NMR is the precession frequency of proton spin within a magnetic field. The axis of a spinning object within an effecting field “wobbles” in a circular pattern known as “precession.”  The best way to understand the factors controlling precession frequency is to consider a gyroscope spinning within the earth’s gravitational field. If the gyroscope is something like a bicycle wheel, the axis of the spinning wheel can be set horizontally and suspended by one pole of the axis. It can hold this horizontal position while supporting only the one side of the axis. However, the “free” pole of the axis will rotate in a circular motion which is known as “precession.”

The frequency of this precession is the rate of circular motion over time. This rate is determined by two factors, the strength of the field and the rate of spin. Since the gravitational field at the earth’s surface is a constant (9.8 m/sec^2), the only factor affecting precession frequency for our horizontal gyroscope is the spin frequency of the device. The faster the gyroscope is spinning, the greater will be the precession frequency (and the narrower the circular motion).

A spinning nuclear proton within an externally applied magnetic field also has a precession frequency. The formula for this proton precession frequency is called the “Lamor frequency.”  It is measured by inserting a target within a magnetic coil. However, not all materials are accessible. Hydrogen bonded materials are the best, with water being the prime example. The Lamor frequency is measured by aligning the atoms in the coil’s magnetic field, turning the field off and measuring the time of an induction current which is produced  by the retained magnetic field of the aligned target atoms. As the atoms “relax” this field,the current disappears. The time of this relaxation is known as “T-1.” “Note that the rates of T-1 relaxation (i.e., 1/T-1) are generally strongly dependent on the NMR frequency” (Wikipedia).

However, the Lamor formula for precession spin frequency eliminated the most important factor, that of particle spin rate.  This was due to an unrealistic and non-proven assumption about proton spin upon the part of primitive quantum mechanics. Although proton spin rates have long been known to be associated with material temperature, primitive quantum mechanics imposed their own quantum numbers of “1/2” spins for each material. That is, proton spin was always a constant for any material as assigned by primitive quantum mechanics. The McFreey article stated: “[The overunity devices] are, in effect, conversion devices, converting excess energy of the nuclei to electricity and/or heat. In these devices, the fuel materials tend to be selected such as to have a non-zero spin, typically: copper, brass, aluminum, alloys of iron and the like.” The proton spin for cobalt, for example, is said to be “5/2,” a proton spin rate which is alleged to be shared by all cobalt protons at all temperatures.

This quantum mechanical imposition of a constant proton spin rate, eliminated spin rate as a factor in NMR precession frequency.The Lamor formula only has two factors: a “gamma factor” which is the procession frequency of any material per unit of magnetic field strength times the the strength of the field. There is no allowance for variance in proton spin frequency allowed by primitive quantum mechanics. The only reason that NMR measurements have been able to give consistent reading while eliminating the actual proton spin factor is because the measurements are taken under lab conditions of very similar ambient temperature conditions.  

Blinded by their own self-imposed ignorance, primitive quantum mechanics are incapable of understanding why radio waves can interact with NMR precession frequencies. They simply cannot understand how electromagnetic radio wave can  reinforce proton precession spin energy states. They do not understand that the capacitance field produced by the nuclear magnetic current is set at 90° to the magnetic field produced by the external field-aligned electrons, thus fulfilling Maxwell’s condition for the existence of an electromagnetic wave. They do not understand that the nuclear precession frequency “pulses” the nuclear electric (capacitance) field producing an electromagnetic wave at its frequency.

With an inadequate Lamor precession frequency formula always measured under similar lab ambient temperature conditions, the “constant” material frequency energy state will always be reinforced by a “constant” amount from electromagnetic wave imposition. McFreey states: “…..after many experiments, the conclusion was that the magnetic resonance alone, i.e. flipping of nuclei (transitions between various states of nuclear precession) with radio frequency, may only influence extremely unstable nuclei.” The radio wave imposition only “flipped the nuclei” producing a “transition” for the nuclear procession. The electromagnetic wave did not reinforce the precession energy state through the mechanism of the intersecting electric and magnetic fields produced by the atom; a reinforcement which would change in intensity under different temperature induced proton spin rates.

Because primitive quantum mechanics is unaware of the structural relationship between atomic fields and electromagnetic waves, they believe that other forms of waves, specifically sound waves would also produce the alleged “transitions” by “flipping the nucleus” generating a new orientation relative to the external magnetic field and creating a new energy state. This is, of course, utter nonsense and makes the bulk of the McFreey article nonsense as well.  

  
6:08 pm mdt          Comments

Monday, June 15, 2015

3:57 pm mdt          Comments

Quantum_Dimensional Update: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
The discovery of a precession frequency for proton spin within a magnetic field introduced nuclear magnetic resonance. The most important formula in the field, The Lamor Frequency equation, was built upon classical physics governing spin within a field. Subsequently, NMR was submerged into the fog of primitive quantum mechanics. For example it was stated, without evidence, that a single hydrogen nucleus could assume the high Lamor frequency energy state and low energy state simultaneously. They call this irrational duality a "super position states." In the world of the magic quantum pixie dust, someone can be hot and cold at the same time.
As the result of being submerged in a primitive quantum mechanical fog, NMR research has been severely restricted. Proton spin precession frequencies within a magnetic field are measured as current variation through an induction coil. It was discovered, however, that the Lamor frequencies could also interact with radio waves of the same frequency. While the discovery has found technical applications, it could not be exploited to guide new NMR research due to the fact that the  primitive quantum mechanical fog prevented understanding how radio-wave/procession-frequencies were actually interacting. They were prevented from applying electromagnetic wave theory to the interaction because of an inadequate atomic model. The quantum-dimensional atomic model supplies the missing element. A magnetic field projected by orbital electron spin is intersecting at 90 degrees to the electrical (capacitance) field projected from the nuclear magnetic current produced by proton spin. Maxwell's electromagnetic waves are the result of a magnetic field and an electrical field set at 90° angles.
3:54 pm mdt          Comments

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

A 1950s Electronic Device claiming Stimulation of Beta Decay might provide inexpensive, easily manufactured Thorium 233 Nuclear Generators
A device described in a 1956 European patent granted to Harold Colman and Ronald Gillespie has produced an intense research interest among alternate energy enthusiasts recently.
(see http://www.rexresearch.com/colman/colman.htm)

The device produces a small electric current by thermo-coupling heat which is generated by stimulated radioactivity. This is so stated in the original patent:

"The Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt associated with the mixture becomes radio active and also releases electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc causing a current to flow there between in a similar manner to the current flow produced by a thermo couple."

A tube containing alternating cells of nonmagnetic zinc, a chemical mixture and then a cell of nonmagnetic copper is suspended in a magnetic field and bombarded with high frequency radio waves. The combination of magnetic field and radio wave bombardment induces radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture which, in turn,  produces a temperature variation between the mixture and the copper and the zinc. The chemical mixture is composed of compounds of cobalt, phosphorous and cadmium.
3:30 pm mdt          Comments

How the Colman Device actually works
The Colman patent design is defective, but a defect which can be corrected by quantum dimensional mathematics and SRNRL beta-decay research. If The device actually works, it could only do so by aligning all the valence electron subshells of the Cobalt atoms under the magnetic field. This common realignment gives common orientation for the Cobalt electron magnetic fields which are naturally set at 90° to their natural nuclear capacitance fields.
(see http://www.paradigmphysics.com/theory_of_MIT_data.pdf p.p.12-15)

When the aligned Cobalt atoms are bombarded with a radio signal, the 90° aligned natural fields of the Cobalt atoms are placed under Maxwell flux which introduces a time factor to the electric capacitance field and tries to force the field to discharge over that time factor.  The field, however, is being continuously charged by a neutron-induced nuclear magnetic current. The radio wave attempt at forced field discharge puts back pressure against the neutron induction of the magnetic current. Because of the unique characteristics of the Cobalt's nuclear structure, this back pressure can result in the release of a neutron from the nucleus without eliminating the crystalline nuclear structure which is required for the transition metallic bonding of Cobalt.
(for explanation of transition metallic bonding see reference above)

If this Cobalt neutron is released, it would be released as a "thermalized" neutron with an energy state similar to the temperature of the materials. This is true because the back pressure which releases the neutron is against the "free-charge spin" of the neutron's attached neutrino. The neutron's "free-charge spin"  is inducting proton spin temperature into the magnetic current (see above reference in the "APPENDIX" p.p. 14-15) .  That is, the neutron is released by a direct counter force against the nuclear heat energy which the neutron is inducting into the nuclear magnetic current. The release does not constitute a "prompt" neutron which has been released by particle collision with the nucleus during nuclear fission.  

Because the neutron is released by a direct counter force against nuclear temperature, it is immediately  a "thermalized" neutron; one which would be instantly  available to the Phosphorous and Cadmium nuclei without further modification of its energy state. The "thermalized" neutron could instantaneously breed the beta decaying isotopes of Phosphorous 32 and Cadmium 113 from the natural Phosphorous 31 and natural Cadmium 112 contained in the chemical mix.

The chemical mix consists of 1 part of the Cobalt Nitrate Hydrate "Co(NO3)2·6H2O," two parts of apparent Cadmium Chloride (the wrong chemical formula is given in the patent) and three parts of a tri-calcium phosphate hydroxide ( again a suspect chemical formula is given in the patent substituting "Ca3(PO3)2-OH" for the standard "Ca3(PO4)2-OH.")

The chemical compounding not withstanding, the active elements are the Cobalt, Phosphorus and Cadmium since the last two elements are the only components of the compounds with a beta-decaying radioactive isotope which can be made by absorption of one extra neutron.
3:26 pm mdt          Comments

Colman Device Operations
The patent states that a thermo-coupled electric current can be generated with a radio wave stimulation of 15 to 30 seconds which increases the temperature of the chemical mixture due to the resultant radioactive emissions. This current last for only about an hour before the radio wave stimulation is again required. Although not stated in the patent, the reason for this loss of the thermo-coupled current is that the variance in temperature between the chemical mixture and the adjoining granular copper and zinc is lost over time.

The temperature variance required for the thermo-coupled current is lost because the thermal conductivity of copper and zinc are so much greater than that of the heat producing chemical mixture. The thermal conductivity of copper is "401 W/(mK)", zinc is "116 W/(mK)," while the thermal conductivity of the chemical mixture is less than "1 W/(mK)."  Further, the heat gained by the zinc and copper in contact with the radioactive chemical mix is mostly insulated from ambient exhaustion because the thermal conductivity of the crystalline tube containing the materials is only between "1-2 W/(mK)."
(SEE "Testing… heat conduction in crystals….." http://users.mrl.illinois.edu/cahill/austin11.pdf)

Heat is produced by the occasional beta-decay of individual atoms within the mixture, heat which must be conducted through the mixture to provide the temperature differential with a facing copper/zinc cells. Since the design provides for no copper/zinc heat exhaustion and the crystalline container acts as a thermal insulator, the copper/zinc temperature builds up more rapidly than new heat is being generated and conducted through the chemical mixture. Within an hour, the temperature differential required for the thermo-coupled current is lost and more Phosphorus and Cadmium atoms must be bred to the beta-decaying isotopes with another 15 second burst of radio wave stimulation of Cobalt atoms being aligned in the magnetic field.
3:23 pm mdt          Comments

Pursuing the Patented Colman Device is Waste of Time
It is a waste of time to try to make the Colman beta-decay thermo-coupler a practical technology. Sometime after a month's operations, the current would be lost as the required thermo-coupled temperature variations would cease to exist. The temperature increase from beta-decay stimulation would have reached an upper limit. This would have occurred because new generations of stimulated beta-decaying isotopes would simple start to replace exhausted initial generations of stimulated radioactive isotopes. The accumulation of beta decaying atoms by subsequent generations of radio wave stimulation would no longer exist. Therefore, temperatures would cease to climb and the variations required for a thermo-coupled current would disappear.

The time frame is determined by the half-lives of the beta-decaying isotopes of Phosphorus and Cadmium. The half-life of Phosphorus 32 is "14.29 days" and the half life of Cadmium 113m is "14.1 years." The beta decay emission frequency required to raise the temperature of the chemical cells would have to come mostly from Phosphorus 32. This is predicted by the nuclear cross section for "P 31" relative to "Ca 112" for the intake of thermalized neutrons into the nucleus.

The nuclear cross section of Ca 112 for thermalized neutrons is between "0.0281 to 0.037 barns."
(https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/29736/finalTHESIS.pdf?sequence=1)

The nuclear cross section of P 32 for thermalized neutrons is "0.1663 barns" which is 4.5 times greater than the Ca 112 cross section. Thermalized neutrons are much more likely to invade the "wider target" Phosphorus nucleus than the "narrower target"  Cadmium nucleus.
( http://wwwndc.jaea.go.jp/cgi-bin/Tab80WWW.cgi?lib=J40&iso=P031)
2:56 pm mdt          Comments

THE QUANTUM DIMENSIONAL CORRECTION OF THE COLMAN DISCOVERY
It is a waste of time to pursue the device described in the Colman patent. The described device produces a trickle thermal-coupled current from a very small temperature gradient produced by neutrons from Cobalt which is locked into a complex compound; neutrons which are breeding beta-decaying isotopes from elements with very narrow nuclear cross sections and relatively long half lives. The resultant radioactive emissions produce minimal heat and a thermo-coupled temperature gradient which is quickly lost to the superior thermal conductivity of the copper and zinc cells.

The lasting importance of Colman is not the patented device, but the initiating discovery.  Colman and Gillespie have proved that, when Cobalt valence electron subshells are aligned in a magnetic field,  the Cobalt can be stimulated to release thermalized neutrons by radio wave bombardment.

These neutrons are unlike the "prompt" neutrons released in fission reactors or by accelerated particle collisions with nuclei. They do not have to be slowed down by a moderating media before they become available to nuclear absorption. They do not have to be "thermalized" because the radio waves implement counter pressures against the heat bearing magnetic current induction provided by the  neutrons. The neutrons are released with an energy state which is the exact equivalent of the thermal state of the nucleus. The released neutrons are the most efficient possible for nuclear reabsorption.
2:38 pm mdt          Comments

A POSSIBLE COLMAN-INFLUENCED "BETA CAPTURE" NUCLEAR GENERATOR
This device is not a thermal coupler. It is a direct current nuclear generator based upon the SRNRL discovery of the capture of beta-decaying isotopes of Thorium in a high voltage capacitance field.

The possibility of capturing beta-decaying Thorium isotopes in a high voltage capacitance field with a resultant direct current flow across the capacitor has been adequately demonstrated by research.
The research basis for this generator is found in the SRNRL video "Part III-A (Technical): The Integration of Nuclear Capacitance by an External Capacitor"     https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s811V2KPexI

The problem in moving from research to a practical nuclear generator has always been the breeding of a sufficient amount of the beta-decaying isotope in order to make  a practical current. The assumption has always been that the breeding of sufficient numbers of the short-lived Th233 atoms would require conventional nuclear processes. Breeding in a fission reactor was ruled out because the needed capacitor could not operate within the core of a reactor. The acceleration of protons against a lead target to release "prompt" neutrons was also considered. However, the accelerator would have to be completely redesigned to accommodate Th233 capture and would be based upon unproven science. Basic research in accelerator design, research which may not even lead to a practical beta-capture generator, proved prohibitively expensive.

The Coleman discovery, if confirmed experimentally, might make a beta-capture nuclear generator possible. I propose that a copper cable surrounded by a mixture of powdered Thorium 232 and granulated Cobalt (being Ferromagnetic and of unique nuclear design) be made the negative terminal of a high voltage  asymmetrical capacitor. This terminal would be initially subjected to a strong magnetic field as per the Colman design.

I further propose that all of the aligned Cobalt atoms could be made to drop their neutrons simultaneously. Radio wave pressure against the nuclear neutron's magnetic-current induction is not determined by wave frequency, but by wave amplitude. Frequency determines field discharge time, the time over which the radio wave tries to force discharge of the nuclear capacitance field. Wave amplitude determines the amount of force being applied to the attempted discharge over time. It is wave amplitude which determines the amount of back-pressure force applied against neutron magnetic current induction. If the amplitude of the radio wave is great enough it should force all the Cobalt atoms to drop a neutron simultaneously.

The simultaneous dropping of neutrons thermalized to an exact temperature which is provided an atom field partially composed of Thorium 232 atoms, would produce maximum conversion of Th232 to beta-decaying Th233 if the temperature is chosen to maximize the Thorium nuclear cross section.
2:36 pm mdt          Comments

THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THORIUM'S THERMALIZED NUCLEAR CROSS SECTIONS
Studies have been done which use neutron beams produced by accelerators which are targeted against metallic Thorium 232. The electron voltages of these neutrons can be measured by the power requirements of the accelerator. The absorption of neutrons by the Th232 target can be measured by the gamma radiation which accompanies the resultant Th233 beta decay. The incidence of gamma release in relation to the electron voltage applied identifies the nuclear cross section.

These study shows that the nuclear cross section of Thorium peaks at approximately 1.655 barns at between neutron electron voltages of 2.24 keV (thousand electron volts) to 2.02 keV. Neutron electron voltages both greater  and less than this tend to produce less gamma emissions or narrower nuclear cross sections.
("Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of Thorium-232 from 1 keV to 408 keV;" p. 10; Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18811248.1981.9733327)

These thousands of neutron electron volts for maximum neutron absorption indicates "hot" thermal conditions. This is the reason that molten salt reactors, which breed Th232 into Uranium 233 by double beta decay, operate at a core temperature of 800° C. This temperature is much greater than the operating temperature of conventional water cooled, Uranium based, reactors and recognizes the thermal conditions which are required to maximum Thorium neutron absorption.

However, non quantum-dimensional nuclear science cannot mathematically convert maximum efficiency neutron electron voltages into required nuclear thermal conditions. The 800° liquid salt reactor was achieved by "trial and error" at the Oak Ridge National Labs in the 1960s.

Quantum Dimensional mathematics, however, has an exact nuclear magnetic current formula for the energy provided by temperature.
(see http://www.paradigmphysics.com/article_for_PRL_submission.pdf).

The "800° C" thermal conditions of the molten salt reactor calculates to a neutron electron voltage of "2.267 keV" which is shown by accelerator experimentation to be the maximum efficiency for Th232 neutron absorption. Oak Ridge's liquid salt Thorium breeder reactor got it right, but by "trial and error" rather than by mathematical calculation.

The new Thorium 233 breeder technology based upon radio wave stimulation of thermalized neutrons from Cobalt cannot depend upon trial and error. As an electronics device, its thermal conditions must be designed so as not to interfere with the operations of the electronics components. Such a permissible temperature does exist which provides a nuclear cross section of 1.45 to 1.25 barns. That temperature is considered proprietorial and will not be revealed.

A note of caution is in order. Only those who have participated in the development of the Cobalt/Thorium Nuclear Generator will be allowed to participate in its profits. All "after-the-fact" scavengers will be kept away from the meat.  Lawrence Dawson
2:34 pm mdt          Comments

Friday, March 8, 2013

The Atomic Nucleus as a Magnetic Current Circuit
Over a century ago, Pierre Curie proposed that a free magnetic current— that is magnetism which flowed through vacuum without any connection to matter—  could be generated by something he called a "magnetic monopole." Curie's theory could not be tested because the "magnetic monopole" could not be found in the 100 years, plus, since Curie first proposed the theory. Recently, however, the monopole has been found and Curie's theory is confirmed. The quantum model of the neutron shows that it is composed as a monopole of free magnetic charge and that it conducts magnetic currents down chains of neutrons-protons. These magnetic currents produce electrical fields, just as electrical currents are known to produce magnetic fields. The electrical field so produced by the nuclear magnetic current is the electron orbital capacitance field. Like magnetic fields which induce electrical currents, this electrical field can induce magnetic currents in the nucleus. This two-way interaction between electron capacitance fields and nuclear magnetic currents is the atomic energy exchange.  It is the physical explanation of the data which supports Project Prometheus. The lecture on this and its supporting text is currently found in the SRNRL 4-D Atomic Structure Lecture Hall.
12:03 pm mst          Comments

Sunday, January 20, 2013

COMPLETED NUCLEAR CAPACITOR MATHEMATICS IDENTIFIES A WEAPONS POTENTIAL TO PROJECT

The nuclear capacitor for Project Prometheus II will need to provide "giga electron voltage" to our proposed particle accelerator.   The design of a nuclear capacitor with this voltage potential required that the math governing the entanglement between the external capacitance field and the nuclear beta capacitance field had to be completed. While research data had provided the complete mathematical functions and constants for the  entangled fields, those functions and constants had not yet been completely organized into mathematical field formulas.

When those formulas were completed, we were presented with two surprises. First, the energy gain from beta-decay suppression during field entanglement was not being invested in our capacitor's current, as previously supposed. Rather, the energy or power gain was being invested in entangled field energy.  This field energy gain was not producing additional current flow, as it would in a normal capacitor, but was residing in the field as potential energy which was significantly reinforcing the strength  and extent of the field. Our original research had identified this previously unknown field strength without recognizing its origins. It required to completion of the field equations to provide that recognition. 

Second, the formulas showed that the nuclear beta capacitance field was absolutely in control of the charge component of field energy for the entangled field. The external capacitor could not influence entangled field charge and any attempt to do so was converted to field voltage. That is, the "charge" of the external capacitance field was always converted to voltage. Entanglement naturally increased the voltage of the external capacitor nearly twenty times. To this "twenty times" could be added many other multiples by manipulation of the external capacitor's charge. By controlling field voltage by manipulating the capacitor's charge, the needed "giga voltage" for the accelerator could be realized.

However, these two discoveries— that excess energy is invested in the entangled field— and— that the nuclear beta capacitance field controls entangled field charge and that the external capacitance field multiplies voltage— identifies the distinct possibility that such a field could be turned into a weapon. Even when the external capacitance field multiplies entangled field voltage tens of thousands of times to reach the needed "giga voltage" the actual wattage stored in the entangled field is very small. This is because the charge provided by naturally occurring beta decaying Thorium 234 is so small. The stored energy is less than a billionth of a watt. When Thorium 232 is bred to Thorium 233 by accelerator-produced neutrons and captured in the entangled field, this wattage will be increased significantly. If accelerator-bred Th-233 is increased to a single coulomb of charge in the entangled field the stored wattage will reach a factor of 10 to the 27th power watts. The field will extend further than anything now known. If this field is given the laser-like vector possible using asymmetrical capacitor technology (paper available to subscribers) then a focused field weapon is a distinct possibility.

 

1:29 pm mst          Comments

Wednesday, January 9, 2013

BREAKTHROUGH ACCELERATOR MATH IDENTIFIES THE ACTUAL BETA NUCLEAR GENERATOR OPERATING PRINCIPLES
The design of the accelerator for Project Prometheus is now completed (proprietorially protected). In order to realize the engineering model for the accelerator, it was necessary to complete two new sets of mathematical equations.

First, the actual operating principles which guided the asymmetrical capacitor needed to be explained. The quantum open-energy integral and the positions of nitrogen and oxygen in the quantum Periodic Table of Elements explained the thrust of the asymmetrical capacitor which had been demonstrated by Isaac Parrish one month ago. The application of those quantum mathematical principles explained why the larger capacitor plate charged and attracted particles of dust and smoke while ejecting air as a jet thrust. In summary, quantum math demonstrated that the asymmetrical capacitor’s thrusting and attraction characteristics are due to the fact that the charge of the smaller terminal is being multiplied by the device (equations proprietorially reserved).

Second,  because the Thorium 234 radioactive material is to be integrated into the smaller terminal, the effects of smaller-terminal charge multiplication upon Thorium 234 beta discharges had to be realized. This proved difficult because the open-energy mathematics for field-suppressed beta decay had yet to be completed; although our original research data (as well as the discovery of the quantum open-energy integral) had provided an empirical equality which made that completion possible. The completion of these open-energy mathematics produced a startling discovery. It had been originally assumed that the energy gain shown to exist for field multiplied beta discharges would be invested in the current of the external capacitor. The completion of the open-energy mathematics revealed that the energy gain would be invested in the field, not in the capacitor’s current. The energy of the current would be “a wash,” neither gaining nor losing energy. This means that the energy gained by the nuclear generator will have to be taken from the capacitance field which is a new electronics engineering challenge.

Field-suppressed beta decay controls the energy of the field by absolutely controlling the charge of the field. Field energy is equal to charge times voltage. Any attempt on the part of the external field generator to increase the charge of the field is resisted by the much stronger radioactive discharge. Attempted charge increases by the field generator must be converted to voltage increases. This relationship is mathematically certain (these equations will be made available only through a written request ). The voltage of an external field generator in which the radioactive material has been integrated into the negative terminal, that generator voltage will be  increased in the resultant field by an exact mathematical formula.

How does this discovery relate to the charge increases characteristic of the smaller terminal of the asymmetrical capacitor? The charge increase provided by the smaller terminal to which the radioactive material has been integrated must also be converted to field voltage. In this manner, the asymmetrical capacitor multiplies field voltage such that it approaches the field voltage required by a proton accelerator. That accelerator field voltage is known to be one giga electron volt per accelerated proton.

LDD  01/09/2013
1:21 pm mst          Comments

Monday, December 24, 2012

THE ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITORíS POTENTIAL TO CREATE ENERGY PROVIDES DESIGN GUIDES FOR NUCLEAR CAPACITOR.
The capacity of fields to provide a continuous source of new energy overcomes the descent into destructive chaos which normal energy exchanges threaten. The exchange reaction tends to  self-destruction. The “fuel” of the reaction is destroyed by becoming something which can no longer provided the reaction. It becomes inert and “cold” with respect to any further energy exchanges. This of course, is a simplified statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Field-generated new energy overcomes this descent into chaos because nothing in the field is changed by the energy reaction as are reactions governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. This escape from the chaos governing other energy reactions is identified by the Quantum Open-Energy Integral. The asymmetrical capacitor has proved that the QOE Integral is a universal mathematical descriptor  of the energy generation potential of all fields ( click on the link to the paper at the top of the subscriber page titled “The Quantum Mechanics of Field-Created Energy and Failure of the Laws of Thermodynamics for Gravitational Fields “)

The application of the QOE Integral explains the thrust (energy creation) of the asymmetrical capacitor which was demonstrated on Dec. 9. Because the Quantum Integral allowed us to identify the factors controlling the energy creation by the asymmetrical capacitance field, those factors can be used to design a version to be applied to the nuclear capacitor. This design indicates that the field-energy created by suppressed beta decay can be further boosted by a factor of at least 60 times by proper design of the asymmetrical capacitor into which the radioactive pellet must be integrated as the negative pole. Blueprints of this design will not be shared on the subscriber page, but are restricted to the engineering staff.
12:19 pm mst          Comments

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The Mathematical Equations for Energy Invested in the Nucleus from Radio Waves at NMR Lamor Frequency