Tuesday, March 31, 2015
A 1950s Electronic Device claiming Stimulation of Beta Decay might provide inexpensive, easily manufactured Thorium 233 Nuclear
A device described in a 1956 European patent granted to Harold Colman and Ronald Gillespie has produced an intense research
interest among alternate energy enthusiasts recently.
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device produces a small electric current by thermo-coupling heat which is generated by stimulated radioactivity. This is so
stated in the original patent:
"The Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt associated with the mixture becomes radio
active and also releases electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc causing a current
to flow there between in a similar manner to the current flow produced by a thermo couple."
A tube containing
alternating cells of nonmagnetic zinc, a chemical mixture and then a cell of nonmagnetic copper is suspended in a magnetic
field and bombarded with high frequency radio waves. The combination of magnetic field and radio wave bombardment induces
radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture which, in turn, produces a temperature variation between the mixture
and the copper and the zinc. The chemical mixture is composed of compounds of cobalt, phosphorous and cadmium.
How the Colman Device actually works
The Colman patent design is defective, but a defect which can be corrected by quantum dimensional mathematics and SRNRL beta-decay
research. If The device actually works, it could only do so by aligning all the valence electron subshells of the Cobalt atoms
under the magnetic field. This common realignment gives common orientation for the Cobalt electron magnetic fields which are
naturally set at 90° to their natural nuclear capacitance fields.
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When the aligned Cobalt atoms are bombarded with a radio signal, the 90° aligned natural fields
of the Cobalt atoms are placed under Maxwell flux which introduces a time factor to the electric capacitance field and tries
to force the field to discharge over that time factor. The field, however, is being continuously charged by a neutron-induced
nuclear magnetic current. The radio wave attempt at forced field discharge puts back pressure against the neutron induction
of the magnetic current. Because of the unique characteristics of the Cobalt's nuclear structure, this back pressure can result
in the release of a neutron from the nucleus without eliminating the crystalline nuclear structure which is required for the
transition metallic bonding of Cobalt.
(for explanation of transition metallic bonding see reference above)
If this Cobalt neutron is released, it would be released as a "thermalized" neutron with an energy state similar
to the temperature of the materials. This is true because the back pressure which releases the neutron is against the "free-charge
spin" of the neutron's attached neutrino. The neutron's "free-charge spin" is inducting proton spin temperature
into the magnetic current (see above reference in the "APPENDIX" p.p. 14-15) . That is, the neutron is released
by a direct counter force against the nuclear heat energy which the neutron is inducting into the nuclear magnetic current.
The release does not constitute a "prompt" neutron which has been released by particle collision with the nucleus
during nuclear fission.
Because the neutron is released by a direct counter force against nuclear temperature,
it is immediately a "thermalized" neutron; one which would be instantly available to the Phosphorous
and Cadmium nuclei without further modification of its energy state. The "thermalized" neutron could instantaneously
breed the beta decaying isotopes of Phosphorous 32 and Cadmium 113 from the natural Phosphorous 31 and natural Cadmium 112
contained in the chemical mix.
The chemical mix consists of 1 part of the Cobalt Nitrate Hydrate "Co(NO3)2·6H2O,"
two parts of apparent Cadmium Chloride (the wrong chemical formula is given in the patent) and three parts of a tri-calcium
phosphate hydroxide ( again a suspect chemical formula is given in the patent substituting "Ca3(PO3)2-OH" for the
The chemical compounding not withstanding, the active elements are the Cobalt,
Phosphorus and Cadmium since the last two elements are the only components of the compounds with a beta-decaying radioactive
isotope which can be made by absorption of one extra neutron.
Colman Device Operations
The patent states that a thermo-coupled electric current can be generated with a radio wave stimulation of 15 to 30 seconds
which increases the temperature of the chemical mixture due to the resultant radioactive emissions. This current last for
only about an hour before the radio wave stimulation is again required. Although not stated in the patent, the reason for
this loss of the thermo-coupled current is that the variance in temperature between the chemical mixture and the adjoining
granular copper and zinc is lost over time.
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The temperature variance required for the thermo-coupled current is
lost because the thermal conductivity of copper and zinc are so much greater than that of the heat producing chemical mixture.
The thermal conductivity of copper is "401 W/(mK)", zinc is "116 W/(mK)," while the thermal conductivity
of the chemical mixture is less than "1 W/(mK)." Further, the heat gained by the zinc and copper in contact
with the radioactive chemical mix is mostly insulated from ambient exhaustion because the thermal conductivity of the crystalline
tube containing the materials is only between "1-2 W/(mK)."
(SEE "Testing… heat conduction in crystals….."
Heat is produced by the occasional beta-decay of individual
atoms within the mixture, heat which must be conducted through the mixture to provide the temperature differential with a
facing copper/zinc cells. Since the design provides for no copper/zinc heat exhaustion and the crystalline container acts
as a thermal insulator, the copper/zinc temperature builds up more rapidly than new heat is being generated and conducted
through the chemical mixture. Within an hour, the temperature differential required for the thermo-coupled current is lost
and more Phosphorus and Cadmium atoms must be bred to the beta-decaying isotopes with another 15 second burst of radio wave
stimulation of Cobalt atoms being aligned in the magnetic field.
Pursuing the Patented Colman Device is Waste of Time
It is a waste of time to try to make the Colman beta-decay thermo-coupler a practical technology. Sometime after a month's
operations, the current would be lost as the required thermo-coupled temperature variations would cease to exist. The temperature
increase from beta-decay stimulation would have reached an upper limit. This would have occurred because new generations of
stimulated beta-decaying isotopes would simple start to replace exhausted initial generations of stimulated radioactive isotopes.
The accumulation of beta decaying atoms by subsequent generations of radio wave stimulation would no longer exist. Therefore,
temperatures would cease to climb and the variations required for a thermo-coupled current would disappear.
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time frame is determined by the half-lives of the beta-decaying isotopes of Phosphorus and Cadmium. The half-life of Phosphorus
32 is "14.29 days" and the half life of Cadmium 113m is "14.1 years." The beta decay emission frequency
required to raise the temperature of the chemical cells would have to come mostly from Phosphorus 32. This is predicted by
the nuclear cross section for "P 31" relative to "Ca 112" for the intake of thermalized neutrons into
The nuclear cross section of Ca 112 for thermalized neutrons is between "0.0281 to 0.037 barns."
cross section of P 32 for thermalized neutrons is "0.1663 barns" which is 4.5 times greater than the Ca 112 cross
section. Thermalized neutrons are much more likely to invade the "wider target" Phosphorus nucleus than the "narrower
target" Cadmium nucleus.
THE QUANTUM DIMENSIONAL CORRECTION OF THE COLMAN DISCOVERY
It is a waste of time to pursue the device described in the Colman patent. The described device produces a trickle thermal-coupled
current from a very small temperature gradient produced by neutrons from Cobalt which is locked into a complex compound; neutrons
which are breeding beta-decaying isotopes from elements with very narrow nuclear cross sections and relatively long half lives.
The resultant radioactive emissions produce minimal heat and a thermo-coupled temperature gradient which is quickly lost to
the superior thermal conductivity of the copper and zinc cells.
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The lasting importance of Colman is not the patented
device, but the initiating discovery. Colman and Gillespie have proved that, when Cobalt valence electron subshells
are aligned in a magnetic field, the Cobalt can be stimulated to release thermalized neutrons by radio wave bombardment.
These neutrons are unlike the "prompt" neutrons released in fission reactors or by accelerated particle
collisions with nuclei. They do not have to be slowed down by a moderating media before they become available to nuclear absorption.
They do not have to be "thermalized" because the radio waves implement counter pressures against the heat bearing
magnetic current induction provided by the neutrons. The neutrons are released with an energy state which is the exact
equivalent of the thermal state of the nucleus. The released neutrons are the most efficient possible for nuclear reabsorption.
A POSSIBLE COLMAN-INFLUENCED "BETA CAPTURE" NUCLEAR GENERATOR
This device is not a thermal coupler. It is a direct current nuclear generator based upon the SRNRL discovery of the capture
of beta-decaying isotopes of Thorium in a high voltage capacitance field.
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The possibility of capturing beta-decaying
Thorium isotopes in a high voltage capacitance field with a resultant direct current flow across the capacitor has been adequately
demonstrated by research.
The research basis for this generator is found in the SRNRL video "Part III-A (Technical):
The Integration of Nuclear Capacitance by an External Capacitor" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s811V2KPexI
The problem in moving from research to a practical nuclear generator has always been the breeding of a sufficient
amount of the beta-decaying isotope in order to make a practical current. The assumption has always been that the breeding
of sufficient numbers of the short-lived Th233 atoms would require conventional nuclear processes. Breeding in a fission reactor
was ruled out because the needed capacitor could not operate within the core of a reactor. The acceleration of protons against
a lead target to release "prompt" neutrons was also considered. However, the accelerator would have to be completely
redesigned to accommodate Th233 capture and would be based upon unproven science. Basic research in accelerator design, research
which may not even lead to a practical beta-capture generator, proved prohibitively expensive.
The Coleman discovery,
if confirmed experimentally, might make a beta-capture nuclear generator possible. I propose that a copper cable surrounded
by a mixture of powdered Thorium 232 and granulated Cobalt (being Ferromagnetic and of unique nuclear design) be made the
negative terminal of a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor. This terminal would be initially subjected to a strong magnetic
field as per the Colman design.
I further propose that all of the aligned Cobalt atoms could be made to drop their
neutrons simultaneously. Radio wave pressure against the nuclear neutron's magnetic-current induction is not determined by
wave frequency, but by wave amplitude. Frequency determines field discharge time, the time over which the radio wave tries
to force discharge of the nuclear capacitance field. Wave amplitude determines the amount of force being applied to the attempted
discharge over time. It is wave amplitude which determines the amount of back-pressure force applied against neutron magnetic
current induction. If the amplitude of the radio wave is great enough it should force all the Cobalt atoms to drop a neutron
The simultaneous dropping of neutrons thermalized to an exact temperature which is provided an
atom field partially composed of Thorium 232 atoms, would produce maximum conversion of Th232 to beta-decaying Th233 if the
temperature is chosen to maximize the Thorium nuclear cross section.
THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THORIUM'S THERMALIZED NUCLEAR CROSS SECTIONS
Studies have been done which use neutron beams produced by accelerators which are targeted against metallic Thorium 232. The
electron voltages of these neutrons can be measured by the power requirements of the accelerator. The absorption of neutrons
by the Th232 target can be measured by the gamma radiation which accompanies the resultant Th233 beta decay. The incidence
of gamma release in relation to the electron voltage applied identifies the nuclear cross section.
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shows that the nuclear cross section of Thorium peaks at approximately 1.655 barns at between neutron electron voltages of
2.24 keV (thousand electron volts) to 2.02 keV. Neutron electron voltages both greater and less than this tend to produce
less gamma emissions or narrower nuclear cross sections.
("Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of Thorium-232
from 1 keV to 408 keV;" p. 10; Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18811248.1981.9733327)
These thousands of neutron electron volts for maximum neutron absorption indicates "hot" thermal conditions.
This is the reason that molten salt reactors, which breed Th232 into Uranium 233 by double beta decay, operate at a core temperature
of 800° C. This temperature is much greater than the operating temperature of conventional water cooled, Uranium based,
reactors and recognizes the thermal conditions which are required to maximum Thorium neutron absorption.
non quantum-dimensional nuclear science cannot mathematically convert maximum efficiency neutron electron voltages into required
nuclear thermal conditions. The 800° liquid salt reactor was achieved by "trial and error" at the Oak Ridge
National Labs in the 1960s.
Quantum Dimensional mathematics, however, has an exact nuclear magnetic current formula
for the energy provided by temperature.
The "800° C" thermal conditions of the molten salt reactor calculates to a neutron electron voltage of "2.267
keV" which is shown by accelerator experimentation to be the maximum efficiency for Th232 neutron absorption. Oak Ridge's
liquid salt Thorium breeder reactor got it right, but by "trial and error" rather than by mathematical calculation.
The new Thorium 233 breeder technology based upon radio wave stimulation of thermalized neutrons from Cobalt cannot
depend upon trial and error. As an electronics device, its thermal conditions must be designed so as not to interfere with
the operations of the electronics components. Such a permissible temperature does exist which provides a nuclear cross section
of 1.45 to 1.25 barns. That temperature is considered proprietorial and will not be revealed.
A note of caution
is in order. Only those who have participated in the development of the Cobalt/Thorium Nuclear Generator will be allowed to
participate in its profits. All "after-the-fact" scavengers will be kept away from the meat. Lawrence Dawson