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Tuesday, March 31, 2015

A 1950s Electronic Device claiming Stimulation of Beta Decay might provide inexpensive, easily manufactured Thorium 233 Nuclear Generators
A device described in a 1956 European patent granted to Harold Colman and Ronald Gillespie has produced an intense research interest among alternate energy enthusiasts recently.

The device produces a small electric current by thermo-coupling heat which is generated by stimulated radioactivity. This is so stated in the original patent:

"The Cadmium, Phosphorus and Cobalt associated with the mixture becomes radio active and also releases electrical energy which is transmitted to the granulated copper and granulated zinc causing a current to flow there between in a similar manner to the current flow produced by a thermo couple."

A tube containing alternating cells of nonmagnetic zinc, a chemical mixture and then a cell of nonmagnetic copper is suspended in a magnetic field and bombarded with high frequency radio waves. The combination of magnetic field and radio wave bombardment induces radioactive emissions from the chemical mixture which, in turn,  produces a temperature variation between the mixture and the copper and the zinc. The chemical mixture is composed of compounds of cobalt, phosphorous and cadmium.
3:30 pm mdt          Comments

How the Colman Device actually works
The Colman patent design is defective, but a defect which can be corrected by quantum dimensional mathematics and SRNRL beta-decay research. If The device actually works, it could only do so by aligning all the valence electron subshells of the Cobalt atoms under the magnetic field. This common realignment gives common orientation for the Cobalt electron magnetic fields which are naturally set at 90° to their natural nuclear capacitance fields.
(see p.p.12-15)

When the aligned Cobalt atoms are bombarded with a radio signal, the 90° aligned natural fields of the Cobalt atoms are placed under Maxwell flux which introduces a time factor to the electric capacitance field and tries to force the field to discharge over that time factor.  The field, however, is being continuously charged by a neutron-induced nuclear magnetic current. The radio wave attempt at forced field discharge puts back pressure against the neutron induction of the magnetic current. Because of the unique characteristics of the Cobalt's nuclear structure, this back pressure can result in the release of a neutron from the nucleus without eliminating the crystalline nuclear structure which is required for the transition metallic bonding of Cobalt.
(for explanation of transition metallic bonding see reference above)

If this Cobalt neutron is released, it would be released as a "thermalized" neutron with an energy state similar to the temperature of the materials. This is true because the back pressure which releases the neutron is against the "free-charge spin" of the neutron's attached neutrino. The neutron's "free-charge spin"  is inducting proton spin temperature into the magnetic current (see above reference in the "APPENDIX" p.p. 14-15) .  That is, the neutron is released by a direct counter force against the nuclear heat energy which the neutron is inducting into the nuclear magnetic current. The release does not constitute a "prompt" neutron which has been released by particle collision with the nucleus during nuclear fission.  

Because the neutron is released by a direct counter force against nuclear temperature, it is immediately  a "thermalized" neutron; one which would be instantly  available to the Phosphorous and Cadmium nuclei without further modification of its energy state. The "thermalized" neutron could instantaneously breed the beta decaying isotopes of Phosphorous 32 and Cadmium 113 from the natural Phosphorous 31 and natural Cadmium 112 contained in the chemical mix.

The chemical mix consists of 1 part of the Cobalt Nitrate Hydrate "Co(NO3)2·6H2O," two parts of apparent Cadmium Chloride (the wrong chemical formula is given in the patent) and three parts of a tri-calcium phosphate hydroxide ( again a suspect chemical formula is given in the patent substituting "Ca3(PO3)2-OH" for the standard "Ca3(PO4)2-OH.")

The chemical compounding not withstanding, the active elements are the Cobalt, Phosphorus and Cadmium since the last two elements are the only components of the compounds with a beta-decaying radioactive isotope which can be made by absorption of one extra neutron.
3:26 pm mdt          Comments

Colman Device Operations
The patent states that a thermo-coupled electric current can be generated with a radio wave stimulation of 15 to 30 seconds which increases the temperature of the chemical mixture due to the resultant radioactive emissions. This current last for only about an hour before the radio wave stimulation is again required. Although not stated in the patent, the reason for this loss of the thermo-coupled current is that the variance in temperature between the chemical mixture and the adjoining granular copper and zinc is lost over time.

The temperature variance required for the thermo-coupled current is lost because the thermal conductivity of copper and zinc are so much greater than that of the heat producing chemical mixture. The thermal conductivity of copper is "401 W/(mK)", zinc is "116 W/(mK)," while the thermal conductivity of the chemical mixture is less than "1 W/(mK)."  Further, the heat gained by the zinc and copper in contact with the radioactive chemical mix is mostly insulated from ambient exhaustion because the thermal conductivity of the crystalline tube containing the materials is only between "1-2 W/(mK)."
(SEE "Testing… heat conduction in crystals….."

Heat is produced by the occasional beta-decay of individual atoms within the mixture, heat which must be conducted through the mixture to provide the temperature differential with a facing copper/zinc cells. Since the design provides for no copper/zinc heat exhaustion and the crystalline container acts as a thermal insulator, the copper/zinc temperature builds up more rapidly than new heat is being generated and conducted through the chemical mixture. Within an hour, the temperature differential required for the thermo-coupled current is lost and more Phosphorus and Cadmium atoms must be bred to the beta-decaying isotopes with another 15 second burst of radio wave stimulation of Cobalt atoms being aligned in the magnetic field.
3:23 pm mdt          Comments

Pursuing the Patented Colman Device is Waste of Time
It is a waste of time to try to make the Colman beta-decay thermo-coupler a practical technology. Sometime after a month's operations, the current would be lost as the required thermo-coupled temperature variations would cease to exist. The temperature increase from beta-decay stimulation would have reached an upper limit. This would have occurred because new generations of stimulated beta-decaying isotopes would simple start to replace exhausted initial generations of stimulated radioactive isotopes. The accumulation of beta decaying atoms by subsequent generations of radio wave stimulation would no longer exist. Therefore, temperatures would cease to climb and the variations required for a thermo-coupled current would disappear.

The time frame is determined by the half-lives of the beta-decaying isotopes of Phosphorus and Cadmium. The half-life of Phosphorus 32 is "14.29 days" and the half life of Cadmium 113m is "14.1 years." The beta decay emission frequency required to raise the temperature of the chemical cells would have to come mostly from Phosphorus 32. This is predicted by the nuclear cross section for "P 31" relative to "Ca 112" for the intake of thermalized neutrons into the nucleus.

The nuclear cross section of Ca 112 for thermalized neutrons is between "0.0281 to 0.037 barns."

The nuclear cross section of P 32 for thermalized neutrons is "0.1663 barns" which is 4.5 times greater than the Ca 112 cross section. Thermalized neutrons are much more likely to invade the "wider target" Phosphorus nucleus than the "narrower target"  Cadmium nucleus.
2:56 pm mdt          Comments

It is a waste of time to pursue the device described in the Colman patent. The described device produces a trickle thermal-coupled current from a very small temperature gradient produced by neutrons from Cobalt which is locked into a complex compound; neutrons which are breeding beta-decaying isotopes from elements with very narrow nuclear cross sections and relatively long half lives. The resultant radioactive emissions produce minimal heat and a thermo-coupled temperature gradient which is quickly lost to the superior thermal conductivity of the copper and zinc cells.

The lasting importance of Colman is not the patented device, but the initiating discovery.  Colman and Gillespie have proved that, when Cobalt valence electron subshells are aligned in a magnetic field,  the Cobalt can be stimulated to release thermalized neutrons by radio wave bombardment.

These neutrons are unlike the "prompt" neutrons released in fission reactors or by accelerated particle collisions with nuclei. They do not have to be slowed down by a moderating media before they become available to nuclear absorption. They do not have to be "thermalized" because the radio waves implement counter pressures against the heat bearing magnetic current induction provided by the  neutrons. The neutrons are released with an energy state which is the exact equivalent of the thermal state of the nucleus. The released neutrons are the most efficient possible for nuclear reabsorption.
2:38 pm mdt          Comments

This device is not a thermal coupler. It is a direct current nuclear generator based upon the SRNRL discovery of the capture of beta-decaying isotopes of Thorium in a high voltage capacitance field.

The possibility of capturing beta-decaying Thorium isotopes in a high voltage capacitance field with a resultant direct current flow across the capacitor has been adequately demonstrated by research.
The research basis for this generator is found in the SRNRL video "Part III-A (Technical): The Integration of Nuclear Capacitance by an External Capacitor"

The problem in moving from research to a practical nuclear generator has always been the breeding of a sufficient amount of the beta-decaying isotope in order to make  a practical current. The assumption has always been that the breeding of sufficient numbers of the short-lived Th233 atoms would require conventional nuclear processes. Breeding in a fission reactor was ruled out because the needed capacitor could not operate within the core of a reactor. The acceleration of protons against a lead target to release "prompt" neutrons was also considered. However, the accelerator would have to be completely redesigned to accommodate Th233 capture and would be based upon unproven science. Basic research in accelerator design, research which may not even lead to a practical beta-capture generator, proved prohibitively expensive.

The Coleman discovery, if confirmed experimentally, might make a beta-capture nuclear generator possible. I propose that a copper cable surrounded by a mixture of powdered Thorium 232 and granulated Cobalt (being Ferromagnetic and of unique nuclear design) be made the negative terminal of a high voltage  asymmetrical capacitor. This terminal would be initially subjected to a strong magnetic field as per the Colman design.

I further propose that all of the aligned Cobalt atoms could be made to drop their neutrons simultaneously. Radio wave pressure against the nuclear neutron's magnetic-current induction is not determined by wave frequency, but by wave amplitude. Frequency determines field discharge time, the time over which the radio wave tries to force discharge of the nuclear capacitance field. Wave amplitude determines the amount of force being applied to the attempted discharge over time. It is wave amplitude which determines the amount of back-pressure force applied against neutron magnetic current induction. If the amplitude of the radio wave is great enough it should force all the Cobalt atoms to drop a neutron simultaneously.

The simultaneous dropping of neutrons thermalized to an exact temperature which is provided an atom field partially composed of Thorium 232 atoms, would produce maximum conversion of Th232 to beta-decaying Th233 if the temperature is chosen to maximize the Thorium nuclear cross section.
2:36 pm mdt          Comments

Studies have been done which use neutron beams produced by accelerators which are targeted against metallic Thorium 232. The electron voltages of these neutrons can be measured by the power requirements of the accelerator. The absorption of neutrons by the Th232 target can be measured by the gamma radiation which accompanies the resultant Th233 beta decay. The incidence of gamma release in relation to the electron voltage applied identifies the nuclear cross section.

These study shows that the nuclear cross section of Thorium peaks at approximately 1.655 barns at between neutron electron voltages of 2.24 keV (thousand electron volts) to 2.02 keV. Neutron electron voltages both greater  and less than this tend to produce less gamma emissions or narrower nuclear cross sections.
("Measurement of Neutron Capture Cross Section of Thorium-232 from 1 keV to 408 keV;" p. 10; Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology.

These thousands of neutron electron volts for maximum neutron absorption indicates "hot" thermal conditions. This is the reason that molten salt reactors, which breed Th232 into Uranium 233 by double beta decay, operate at a core temperature of 800° C. This temperature is much greater than the operating temperature of conventional water cooled, Uranium based, reactors and recognizes the thermal conditions which are required to maximum Thorium neutron absorption.

However, non quantum-dimensional nuclear science cannot mathematically convert maximum efficiency neutron electron voltages into required nuclear thermal conditions. The 800° liquid salt reactor was achieved by "trial and error" at the Oak Ridge National Labs in the 1960s.

Quantum Dimensional mathematics, however, has an exact nuclear magnetic current formula for the energy provided by temperature.

The "800° C" thermal conditions of the molten salt reactor calculates to a neutron electron voltage of "2.267 keV" which is shown by accelerator experimentation to be the maximum efficiency for Th232 neutron absorption. Oak Ridge's liquid salt Thorium breeder reactor got it right, but by "trial and error" rather than by mathematical calculation.

The new Thorium 233 breeder technology based upon radio wave stimulation of thermalized neutrons from Cobalt cannot depend upon trial and error. As an electronics device, its thermal conditions must be designed so as not to interfere with the operations of the electronics components. Such a permissible temperature does exist which provides a nuclear cross section of 1.45 to 1.25 barns. That temperature is considered proprietorial and will not be revealed.

A note of caution is in order. Only those who have participated in the development of the Cobalt/Thorium Nuclear Generator will be allowed to participate in its profits. All "after-the-fact" scavengers will be kept away from the meat.  Lawrence Dawson
2:34 pm mdt          Comments

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