Monday, December 24, 2012
THE ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITORíS POTENTIAL TO CREATE ENERGY PROVIDES DESIGN GUIDES FOR NUCLEAR CAPACITOR.
The capacity of fields to provide a continuous source of new energy overcomes the descent into destructive chaos which normal
energy exchanges threaten. The exchange reaction tends to self-destruction. The “fuel” of the reaction is
destroyed by becoming something which can no longer provided the reaction. It becomes inert and “cold” with respect
to any further energy exchanges. This of course, is a simplified statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
12:19 pm mst
new energy overcomes this descent into chaos because nothing in the field is changed by the energy reaction as are reactions
governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. This escape from the chaos governing other energy reactions is identified by the Quantum
Open-Energy Integral. The asymmetrical capacitor has proved that the QOE Integral is a universal mathematical descriptor
of the energy generation potential of all fields ( click on the link to the paper at the top of the subscriber page titled
“The Quantum Mechanics of Field-Created Energy and Failure of the Laws of Thermodynamics for Gravitational Fields “)
The application of the QOE Integral explains the thrust (energy creation) of the asymmetrical capacitor which was
demonstrated on Dec. 9. Because the Quantum Integral allowed us to identify the factors controlling the energy creation by
the asymmetrical capacitance field, those factors can be used to design a version to be applied to the nuclear capacitor.
This design indicates that the field-energy created by suppressed beta decay can be further boosted by a factor of at least
60 times by proper design of the asymmetrical capacitor into which the radioactive pellet must be integrated as the negative
pole. Blueprints of this design will not be shared on the subscriber page, but are restricted to the engineering staff.
Monday, December 17, 2012
NEITHER THE ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITOR NOR ITS APPLICATION TO THIS PROJECT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY MENTAL STATES RIGIDLY STRUCTURED
IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
The asymmetrical capacitor has been under experimentation for ninety years. (See NASA article outlining history of the asymmetrical
6:03 pm mst
problem with all former research, including NASA research, into the asymmetrical capacitor is that it always focuses on possible
propulsion force without regard for the capacitance field which is the basic motivation of the capacitor’s performance.
In the NASA article referenced above, various configurations are tested for propulsion force. However, the standard electronics
formulas for charge, voltage, energy and capacitance were never mentioned. Since the early 1920’s researchers have never
been able to treat the asymmetrical capacitor as a capacitor. They have always treated it as a device generating an “inexplicable
propulsion force.” The NASA report tests propulsion and “assumes” capacitance characteristics as shown in
the abstract of their article reprinted below:
Abstract (FROM NASA PAPER)
Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For
over eighty years it has been known that a thrust results
when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow.
However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results
of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages,
polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at
atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the
thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this
current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured
data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for
ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.
By their own admission, the researchers MEASURED kinetic forces of
propulsion under various voltages, polarities, air pressure and temperature and only ASSUMED the electrical-capacitance factors
of an alleged “current leakage” and alleged “charged ions” (ie electron flow across space as in a
cathode tube) colliding with air molecules. They MEASURED kinetic forces and only ASSUMED electrical forces.
reason that researchers measure kinetic force— and only assume electrical force— is that their mind set is rigidly
structured by three dimensional space. The asymmetrical capacitor is explained by electrical operations within the context
of space as influenced by the quantum dimension. The three-dimensional mind set cannot allow for this. With three-dimensional
assumptions, researchers cannot treat the capacitance field as storing energy (its fundamental definition). Such stored
energy would have to supply “current flow” as well as kinetic thrust, which standard capacitance formulas
would not allow. There is no room for the additional energy in the field required to supply both. It is only an additional
dimension which allows “room” for additional energy within the field.
What is true of NASA researchers
is equally true of anyone involved in this project. A rigidly structured three-dimensional mind set will not allow for the
design elements which must be employed. The correct electrical explanation of the asymmetrical capacitor will make this abundantly
THE ACTUAL EXPLANATION OF THE ASYMMETRICAL THRUSTING CAPACITOR.
The scientific questions relevant
to the “asymmetrical thrusting capacitor” (abbreviated as ATC) are two in number. First, how does the capacitance
field acquire sufficient stored energy to account for electrical charge force as well as an additional kinetic force? Second,
how does the field vector the additional kinetic force to provide a practical thrust? (Please consult any competent electronics
text to assure yourselves that the formulas I am about to present are correct.)
A normal capacitor’s field
strength is determined by geometric components. The electrical charge force of the field is determined by the charge of the
positive plate (as fixed by plate area) times the charge of the negative plate(again fixed by plate area) divided by
the square of the distance between the two plates. As the plates get further apart geometrically, the charge of the field
is reduced. The energy of the field is determined by field charge as modified by plate separation times the voltage of the
Field energy equals geometrically-determined charge times voltage. At fixed voltages, field energy
can only be increased by increasing the charge which is a function of amperage or current flow. It is field energy which must
be increased to account for the new kinetic forces which have been added to the charge-force which is required by the circuit
to sustain the field. In three dimensional electronics, charge cannot really be increased without addressing voltage. Only
the quantum-dimension will allow this, as will be demonstrated.
What I am about to say requires the postulation
that the space of separation between the terminals of the capacitor is defined by an unrecognized quantum dimension. Vacuum
is the quantum squared and mass is the quantum-squared squared again. Matter and space do not have the same geometric
definition. The following analysis of the ACT can and will make no sense to anyone rigidly affixed to a three-dimensional
definition which describes both the matter composing the terminals and the space of separation between those terminals.
A field is always a “surrogate quantum” because it represents force projected across and defined
by a spacial distance. Geometrically, a quantum is defined as two points separated by a non-divisible space. The space of
separation is non-divisible because it contains no geometric points. The quantum is defined by only two points and the
separation between them must be sustained by a force. The field between the terminals represents a surrogate quantum because
the terminals project force between them, a force directly related to the distance of separation between the terminals.
Both the gravitational field as well as the electrostatic capacitance field are defined by the forceful opposition
of two objects with the strength of the field determined by the square of the distance between them. The gravitational field
is defined by the absolute attraction of two opposing masses as modified by the square of the distance of separation. The
electrostatic capacitance field is defined by the absolute attraction of two opposite charges as modified by the square of
the distance of separation. In both cases, absolute force of attraction divided by the square of the distance of separation
defines field force.
The problem with three-dimensional mathematics is that it cannot calculate what happens as
distances of separation change; as an object falls to the earth’s surface from within the earth’s gravitational
system; or, as the distances of separation between a wire and a plate in an asymmetrical capacitor change across the
surface of the plate.
The reason that three-dimensional math is blinded is that the summation of all the
changes in force cannot be mathematically determined in three-dimensional space. For the falling object, the old acceleration
rate (defining force) is increased by the new acceleration rate as the distance between objects change. The final acceleration
rate is the summation of them all. This is mathematically determined by the calculus integration of all forces across the
distance of the fall.
The integration of division by distance-squared is not mathematically possible in three
dimensional space because the force value becomes greater than the “absolute attraction value” when distance
passes “1” and will become infinitely great as distance approaches “0.” Division by a “fraction-squared”
increases the resultant value to something greater than the value of the original numerator. A quick check will prove this
to be correct. Dividing any number by “0.5 squared” will remainder a number four times the original. The same
increase can be observed for any other fractional value with the increase becoming greater as the fraction approaches
The integration of “division by distance-squared” becomes possible if the minimum
distance of the field is established as a quantum; that is if the existence of a quantum dimension is assumed. In the gravitational
field, the minimum distance is the distance between the surface of the earth and the center of the earth. For the asymmetrical
capacitor, the minimum distance is the minimum distance between the wire and the plate. Nothing can fall closer to the center
of the earth than to its surface. The distance between opposing charges can be no smaller than the minimum distance
between wire and plate. All distances for the field can then be measured in these quantum units.
Why setting minimum
distance equal to a quantum makes integration of the field equation possible is a simple fact of mathematics. The fundamental
principle governing the geometric quantum is that it can never be subdivided. However, the space of separation between the
two endpoints can be made smaller by the principle of “the negation of subdivision.” That is, if a subdivision
is subtracted from the space of separation, then the distance of separation between the two end points is made smaller.
We can take advantage of this characteristic of quantum space to make the field integral possible. The calculus derivative
of the “negation of subdivision” equals the “subdivision squared” ( derivative of “1-1/x”
is “1/x squared”). The derivative of the negation of subdivision gives us the field-strength distance factor of
“distance squared.” By fundamental calculus, the integration of the derivative equals the original function.
Integrating the ““absolute attraction value divided by distance squared” between “distance=1”
and “distance=x” is equal to “(1-1/x)(absolute attraction value).” We now have an exact value for
the needed integration by setting “x=maximum distance” (as measured in quantum units). By assuming that the spaces
of separation defining fields are composed by an additional quantum dimension, we have achieved the rational integration we
were denied by assuming that space was only three dimensional.
What these relatively simple mathematics leading
to the above quantum field integral have actually done, however, is much more significant than simply given further
evidence for the existence of the quantum dimension. The “quantum field integral” proves that fields can actually
create new energy and that the concept of universal entropy may actually be wrong.
“Taken together, all processes
occurring now will result in a universe of greater disorder. Because the entropy of the universe is always increasing, a state
of greater entropy must be one that occurs later in time. For this reason, entropy has been called ‘ time's arrow.’
“ SOURCE: THE WORLD BOOK
The quantum dimension and its application to the generation of new energy
via fields may be producing a counter force to the proposed increasing disorder from general entropy.
however, we must restrict our discovery of the field creation of new energy to its application in the asymmetrical thrusting
capacitor. The quantum field integral (sometimes called “the quantum open-energy integral”) shows that the ATC
actually increases charge. When quantum distances are integrated from the furthest space between wire and plate to the closest
space between wire and plate, the charge of the wire approaches the limits of the opposing plate’s potential. The charge
of the wire begins to approximate the charge which would exist if it were also plate. Since charge is always a function of
the number of atoms, the smaller number of atoms in the wire begin to acquire the charge value of the greater number of atoms
which would exist in the larger surface area of a plate. This is a mathematical certainty which is confirmed by the actual
performance of the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor.
Since the energy stored in the electrostatic capacitance
field is equal to the charge of the field times the voltage, the increase in charge results in an increase in stored energy
in the field. This increase in stored field energy allows the field to sustain itself while providing additional energy to
move a jet of air as a thrust source. The angle of rotation for the plate also provides some increase in charge. However,
the most important function of angle of rotation is to vector the field which directs the air jet away from the capacitor.
The vector of field is being supplied solely by the plate and its position relative to the capacitor as a whole.
Why the air was forced outward to provide thrust during our experiment, while dielectrics within the air (dust,
smoke particles and chalk particles) were attracted to the plate is explained by the position of the nitrogen and oxygen within
the quantum periodic table of elements. The expulsion of air is explained by the quantum-dimensional discovery that the lowest
orbital subshell is deficient in energy and that oxygen and nitrogen have a very unique relationship to this lower subshell.
It is a another topic well beyond this entry.
Finally, a word must be said about the proposed explanation for
the thrust proposed by the NASA research team referenced at the beginning of this entry. It was proposed that a “current
leakage” in the form of an electron stream between terminals in the ATC produced thrust via multiple collisions with
air molecules. There are several major problems with this proposals. First, the electron stream would be restricted to the
plane established by the closest distance between the plate and the wire. Electron trajectories would seek the closest distance
to the positive terminal and would not be distributed along the full width of the plate. The vectors of collision would be
contained within this plane and not 90° to it which thrust would require. Secondly, electron collisions moving massive
oxygen and nitrogen molecules is restricted by physical law. A single oxygen atom is greater than 32 thousand times
more massive than an electron and a single nitrogen atom is greater than 25 thousand times more massive. Finally, electron
streams such as those proposed are used to ionize gases which is probably the most likely result of the proposed stream. Ionized
air molecules would be attracted to the positive terminal of the ATC, not rejected by the whole device.
actual explanation is given by the characteristics of capacitance fields another topic for a later entry.
Thursday, December 13, 2012
ASYMMETRICAL THRUSTING CAPACITOR CAN IMPROVE DESIGN OF NUCLEAR CAPACITOR FOR ACCELERATOR
On 12/ 09 Isaac Parrish (SRNRL Nuclear Electronics Intern) exhibited an asymmetrical thrusting capacitor to our lab staff.
The asymmetrical capacitor consists of an electrical terminal plate set in capacitance opposition to a single wire electrical
terminal. The shortest distance between the terminal wire and the terminal plate is at one end of the plate. (See http.//paradigmphysics.com/Asym-quant-mechanics.pdf
for a cross sectional illustration). When the plate is rotated at sufficient angle away from the wire along the edge closest
to the wire (see cross sectional illustration) it can generate a thrusting capacitance field. The plates and wires are configured
in a triangular form, the structure being made of very light materials (the plates made of tinfoil). When this configuration
is hung from the ceiling with the wires and plates being given oppositional charges, the structure swings against gravity
while emitting a detectable air flow out the back in opposition to the direction of swing. The capacitance field generated
by the opposite charges exhibit a demonstrable vectored thrusting force. The amount of thrust is determined by the angle of
rotation. Greater angles of rotation— those approaching 90°— exhibit more thrust than lesser angles of rotation.
This fact was experimentally confirmed.
2:42 pm mst
While the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor has been known for many years,
it has been excluded from professional electronics as an “aberration” presented only by amateur proponents. Since
conventional electronics theory cannot explain the phenomenon, that phenomenon will not be allowed as data. This is not the
first time that established science has disallowed aberrant data. In 1834, J.S. Russell presented the evidence for his soliton
water wave to the Royal Academy. The phenomenon was disallowed as a physical phenomenon (but accepted in theoretical mathematics)
until it was fully explained in the book “The Quantum Dimension” issued in 2009.
physics can explain the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor— taking it out of the category of “aberrant electronics”
and giving it design capability. In the first place, conventional electronics theory cannot account for the fact that the
charge of the wire is actually being multiplied by the asymmetry. This fact is revealed by the quantum open-energy integral
which does not exist for the conventional calculus of contemporary electronics theory. (See http.//paradigmphysics.com/Asym-quant-mechanics.pdf
for the quantum open-energy integral). The quantum integral shows that the charge of the wire is actually being increased
by the greater angles of rotation being used by the thrusting capacitor.
However, this increase in charge due
to angle cannot fully explain the thrusting characteristics of the capacitor. The greatest contribution to asymmetrical charge
increase of the wire is plate width, not angle of rotation. If the blade (plate) is the same width as the minimum distance
of separation between wire and plate, then maximum rotation increases wire charge by 170%. If, however, the blade (plate)
width is four times distance then maximum rotation increases wire charge by only 105%. Angle of rotation determines thrust.
But thrust cannot be explained by simple charge multiplication due to angle of rotation because that charge multiplication
varies by blade width.
The real explanation of thrust (swing against gravity) is the vectoring of the field-force
due to asymmetry. The normal vector of force between parallel-plate capacitors is 90° to the plates. For the asymmetrical
capacitor, the vector of force is still 90° to the single plate. As the plate is rotated relative to the wire and this
rotation approaches 90°, this vector of force begins to approach 90° against the wire/plate configuration, thus creating
thrust. ( to see force configuration, click on The Asymmetrical Thrusting Capacitor Illustration above). The distance “r”
in the illustration increases as the angle of rotation increases. Wire charge is also increased by the quantum open-energy
integral. That is, as the plate is rotated towards 90°, the wire’s charge is increased enough to sustain the vector
of force emanating from the plate at these angles.
The application of the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor to
the nuclear capacitor is obvious. The nuclear capacitor’s field strength is multiplied by suppressed beta decay to approach
an equivalence of 512 MeV. To be able to project this high electron voltage field in a single direction along the tube of
the accelerator will give this electron voltage equivalence to the whole length of the accelerator tube. That is, we will
be able to duplicate the high electron voltage per meter available only in the most expensive accelerators such as the CERN
or Fermi accelerators. However, further research is needed to make this possible. We still know nothing about the polarity
of the field projected by the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor. Only further research can answer this necessary question for
final capacitor design.
Tuesday, December 4, 2012
Understanding Nuclear Capacitance and the Accelerator Fuel Pellet
4:40 pm mst
The new Uranium/Thorium-234 fuel for the accelerator has arrived and proved sufficiently
energetic. The rock sample has been successfully pulverized in preparation for producing the accelerator fuel pellet. However,
an issue has arisen as to the manufacturing of the pellet for insertion. Should a binder be used or should the pellet simply
be pressed into form? The correct answer is "NEITHER!!!!!!"
An understanding of how the pellet must be manufactured requires
an understanding of the way that the pellet's nuclear capacitance field differs from the capacitance field provided by the
circuit-driven power supply. Nuclear capacitance doesn't encounter electrical resistance as does circuit-driven capacitance.
In place of electrical resistance the asymmetrical nuclear capacitor (the electron/proton orbital structure is reviewed in
our "New Form of Nuclear Energy" video), that asymmetrical nuclear capacitance field replaces "current resistance"
with "kinetic energy" from the attached proton.
The energy from the nucleus is independent of the field; from
the field's electron voltage (controlled by the orbital) and the field's charge which has now become a dependent variable.
Electrical resistance has no such independent variability with respect to the capacitance field and, therefore, cannot control
"charge" independently of "voltage" as can the nuclear capacitance field. When the pellet's nuclear capacitance
field is integrated into the circuit-driven capacitance field, nuclear energy increases "charge" by increasing the
frequency of beta-electron discharges. These electron discharges are then integrated into the current of the circuit-driven
capacitor. This process, of course, is much more complicated than has been reviewed here.
Returning to the design of the Uranium/Thorium-234
fuel pellet. Nothing should interfere with the beta discharges such that they are prevented from streaming to the anode terminal
of the power supply and thus enter into the current. A binder might prevent streaming as might pressing the powder into form.
The answer is that the powder must be formed using a very thin paper made into a cylinder. Tests show that thin paper does
interfere with beta particles produced by the U/Th-234 fuel cell.