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The Quantum Open-Energy Integral and its Application to the Asymmetrical Nuclear Capacitor

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Monday, December 24, 2012

THE ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITORíS POTENTIAL TO CREATE ENERGY PROVIDES DESIGN GUIDES FOR NUCLEAR CAPACITOR.
The capacity of fields to provide a continuous source of new energy overcomes the descent into destructive chaos which normal energy exchanges threaten. The exchange reaction tends to  self-destruction. The “fuel” of the reaction is destroyed by becoming something which can no longer provided the reaction. It becomes inert and “cold” with respect to any further energy exchanges. This of course, is a simplified statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Field-generated new energy overcomes this descent into chaos because nothing in the field is changed by the energy reaction as are reactions governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. This escape from the chaos governing other energy reactions is identified by the Quantum Open-Energy Integral. The asymmetrical capacitor has proved that the QOE Integral is a universal mathematical descriptor  of the energy generation potential of all fields ( click on the link to the paper at the top of the subscriber page titled “The Quantum Mechanics of Field-Created Energy and Failure of the Laws of Thermodynamics for Gravitational Fields “)

The application of the QOE Integral explains the thrust (energy creation) of the asymmetrical capacitor which was demonstrated on Dec. 9. Because the Quantum Integral allowed us to identify the factors controlling the energy creation by the asymmetrical capacitance field, those factors can be used to design a version to be applied to the nuclear capacitor. This design indicates that the field-energy created by suppressed beta decay can be further boosted by a factor of at least 60 times by proper design of the asymmetrical capacitor into which the radioactive pellet must be integrated as the negative pole. Blueprints of this design will not be shared on the subscriber page, but are restricted to the engineering staff.
12:19 pm mst          Comments

Monday, December 17, 2012

NEITHER THE ASYMMETRICAL CAPACITOR NOR ITS APPLICATION TO THIS PROJECT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY MENTAL STATES RIGIDLY STRUCTURED IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
The asymmetrical capacitor has been under experimentation for ninety years. (See NASA article outlining history of the asymmetrical capacitor at:

http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20040171929_2004178266.pdf)

The problem with all former research, including NASA research, into the asymmetrical capacitor is that it always focuses on possible propulsion force without regard for the capacitance field which is the basic motivation of the capacitor’s performance. In the NASA article referenced above, various configurations are tested for propulsion force. However, the standard electronics formulas for charge, voltage, energy and capacitance were never mentioned. Since the early 1920’s researchers have never been able to treat the asymmetrical capacitor as a capacitor. They have always treated it as a device generating an “inexplicable propulsion force.” The NASA report tests propulsion and “assumes” capacitance characteristics as shown in the abstract  of their article reprinted below:

Abstract (FROM NASA PAPER)

Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For
over eighty years it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an  asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

By their own admission, the researchers MEASURED kinetic forces of propulsion under various voltages, polarities, air pressure and temperature and only ASSUMED the electrical-capacitance factors of an alleged “current leakage” and alleged “charged ions” (ie electron flow across space as in a cathode tube) colliding with air molecules. They MEASURED kinetic forces and only ASSUMED electrical forces.

The reason that researchers measure kinetic force— and only assume electrical force— is that their mind set is rigidly structured by three dimensional space. The asymmetrical capacitor is explained by electrical operations within the context of space as influenced by the quantum dimension. The three-dimensional mind set cannot allow for this. With three-dimensional assumptions, researchers cannot treat the capacitance field as storing energy (its fundamental definition).  Such stored energy would have to supply “current flow” as well as kinetic thrust,  which standard capacitance formulas would not allow. There is no room for the additional energy in the field required to supply both. It is only an additional dimension which allows “room” for additional energy within the field.

What is true of NASA researchers is equally true of anyone involved in this project. A rigidly structured three-dimensional mind set will not allow for the design elements which must be employed. The correct electrical explanation of the asymmetrical capacitor will make this abundantly clear.

THE ACTUAL EXPLANATION OF THE ASYMMETRICAL THRUSTING CAPACITOR.
The scientific questions relevant to the “asymmetrical thrusting capacitor” (abbreviated as ATC) are two in number. First, how does the capacitance field acquire sufficient stored energy to account for electrical charge force as well as an additional kinetic force? Second, how does the field vector the additional kinetic force to provide a practical thrust? (Please consult any competent electronics text to assure yourselves that the formulas I am about to present are correct.)

A normal capacitor’s field strength is determined by geometric components. The electrical charge force of the field is determined by the charge of the positive plate (as fixed by plate area) times the charge of the negative plate(again fixed by plate area)  divided by the square of the distance between the two plates. As the plates get further apart geometrically, the charge of the field is reduced. The energy of the field is determined by field charge as modified by plate separation times the voltage of the field.

Field energy equals geometrically-determined charge times voltage.  At fixed voltages, field energy can only be increased by increasing the charge which is a function of amperage or current flow. It is field energy which must be increased to account for the new kinetic forces which have been added to the charge-force which is required by the circuit to sustain the field. In three dimensional electronics, charge cannot really be increased without addressing voltage. Only the quantum-dimension will allow this, as will be demonstrated.

What I am about to say requires the postulation that the space of separation between the terminals of the capacitor is defined by an unrecognized quantum dimension. Vacuum is  the quantum squared and mass is the quantum-squared squared again. Matter and space do not have the same geometric definition.  The following analysis of the ACT can and will make no sense to anyone rigidly affixed to a three-dimensional definition which describes both the matter composing the terminals and the space of separation between those terminals.

 A field is always a “surrogate quantum” because it represents force projected across and defined by a spacial distance. Geometrically, a quantum is defined as two points separated by a non-divisible space. The space of separation is non-divisible  because it contains no geometric points. The quantum is defined by only two points and the separation between them must be sustained by a force. The field between the terminals represents a surrogate quantum because the terminals project force between them, a force directly related to the distance of separation between the terminals.

Both the gravitational field as well as the electrostatic capacitance field are defined by the forceful opposition of two objects with the strength of the field determined by the square of the distance between them. The gravitational field is defined by the absolute attraction of two opposing masses as modified by the square of the distance of separation. The electrostatic capacitance field is defined by the absolute attraction of two opposite charges as modified by the square of the distance of separation. In both cases, absolute force of attraction divided by the square of the distance of separation defines field force.

The problem with three-dimensional mathematics is that it cannot calculate what happens as  distances of separation change; as an object falls to the earth’s surface from within the earth’s gravitational system;  or, as the distances of separation between a wire and a plate in an asymmetrical capacitor change across the surface of the plate.

The reason that three-dimensional math is blinded is that the  summation of all the changes in force cannot be mathematically determined in three-dimensional space. For the falling object, the old acceleration rate  (defining force) is increased by the new acceleration rate as the distance between objects change. The final acceleration rate is the summation of them all. This is mathematically determined by the calculus integration of all forces across the distance of the fall.

The integration of division by distance-squared is not mathematically possible in three dimensional space because the force value becomes greater than the “absolute attraction value”  when distance passes “1” and will become infinitely great as distance approaches “0.” Division by a “fraction-squared” increases the resultant value to something greater than the value of the original numerator. A quick check will prove this to be correct. Dividing any number by “0.5 squared” will remainder a number four times the original. The same increase  can be observed for any other fractional value with the increase becoming greater as the fraction approaches “0.”

The integration of “division by distance-squared” becomes possible if the minimum distance of the field is established as a quantum; that is if the existence of a quantum dimension is assumed. In the gravitational field, the minimum distance is the distance between the surface of the earth and the center of the earth. For the asymmetrical capacitor, the minimum distance is the minimum distance between the wire and the plate. Nothing can fall closer to the center of the earth than to its surface. The  distance between opposing charges  can be no smaller than the minimum distance between wire and plate. All distances for the field can then be measured in these quantum units.

Why setting minimum distance equal to a quantum makes integration of the field equation possible is a simple fact of mathematics.  The fundamental principle governing the geometric quantum is that it can never be subdivided. However, the space of separation between the two endpoints can be made smaller by the principle of “the negation of subdivision.”  That is, if a subdivision is subtracted from the space of separation, then the distance of separation between the two end points is made smaller.

We can take advantage of this characteristic of quantum space to make the field integral possible. The calculus derivative of the “negation of subdivision” equals the “subdivision squared” ( derivative  of  “1-1/x”  is “1/x squared”). The derivative of the negation of subdivision gives us the field-strength distance factor of “distance squared.”  By fundamental calculus, the integration of the derivative equals the original function. Integrating the ““absolute attraction value divided by distance squared” between “distance=1” and “distance=x” is equal to “(1-1/x)(absolute attraction value).” We now have an exact value for the needed integration by setting “x=maximum distance” (as measured in quantum units). By assuming that the spaces of separation defining fields are composed by an additional quantum dimension, we have achieved the rational integration we were denied by assuming that space was only three dimensional.

What these relatively simple mathematics leading to the above quantum field integral have actually done, however,  is much more significant than simply given further evidence for the existence of the quantum dimension. The “quantum field integral” proves that fields can actually create new energy and that the concept of universal entropy may actually be wrong.

“Taken together, all processes occurring now will result in a universe of greater disorder. Because the entropy of the universe is always increasing, a state of greater entropy must be one that occurs later in time. For this reason, entropy has been called ‘ time's arrow.’ “  SOURCE: THE WORLD BOOK

The quantum dimension and its application to the generation of new energy via fields may be producing a counter force to the proposed increasing disorder from general entropy.

For now, however, we must restrict our discovery of the field creation of new energy to its application in the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor. The quantum field integral (sometimes called “the quantum open-energy integral”) shows that the ATC actually increases charge. When quantum distances are integrated from the furthest space between wire and plate to the closest space between wire and plate, the charge of the wire approaches the limits of the opposing plate’s potential. The charge of the wire begins to approximate the charge which would exist if it were also plate. Since charge is always a function of the number of atoms, the smaller number of atoms in the wire begin to acquire the charge value of the greater number of atoms which would exist in the larger surface area of a plate. This is a mathematical certainty which is confirmed by the actual performance of the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor.

Since the energy stored in the electrostatic capacitance field is equal to the charge of the field times the voltage, the increase in charge results in an increase in stored energy in the field. This increase in stored field energy allows the field to sustain itself while providing additional energy to move a jet of air as a thrust source. The  angle of rotation for the plate also provides some increase in charge. However, the most important function of angle of rotation is to vector the field which directs the air jet away from the capacitor. The vector of field is being supplied solely by the plate and its position relative to the capacitor as a whole.

Why the air was forced outward  to provide thrust during our experiment, while dielectrics within the air  (dust, smoke particles and chalk particles) were attracted to the plate is explained by the position of the nitrogen and oxygen within the quantum periodic table of elements. The expulsion of air is explained by the quantum-dimensional discovery that the lowest orbital subshell is deficient in energy and that oxygen and nitrogen have a very unique relationship to this lower subshell. It is a another topic well beyond this entry.

Finally, a word must be said about the proposed explanation for the thrust proposed by the NASA research team referenced at the beginning of this entry.  It was proposed that a “current leakage” in the form of an electron stream between terminals in the ATC produced thrust via multiple collisions with air molecules. There are several major problems with this proposals. First, the electron stream would be restricted to the plane established by the closest distance between the plate and the wire. Electron trajectories would seek the closest distance to the positive terminal and would not be distributed along the full width of the plate. The vectors of collision would be contained within this plane and not 90° to it which thrust would require. Secondly, electron collisions moving massive oxygen and nitrogen molecules is restricted by physical law.  A single oxygen atom is greater than 32 thousand times more massive than an electron and a single nitrogen atom is greater than 25 thousand times more massive. Finally, electron streams such as those proposed are used to ionize gases which is probably the most likely result of the proposed stream. Ionized air molecules would be attracted to the positive terminal of the  ATC, not rejected by the whole device.

The actual explanation is given by the characteristics of capacitance fields another topic for a later entry.

6:03 pm mst          Comments

Thursday, December 13, 2012

ASYMMETRICAL THRUSTING CAPACITOR CAN IMPROVE DESIGN OF NUCLEAR CAPACITOR FOR ACCELERATOR
On 12/ 09 Isaac Parrish (SRNRL Nuclear Electronics Intern) exhibited an asymmetrical thrusting capacitor to our lab staff. The asymmetrical capacitor consists of an electrical terminal plate set in capacitance opposition to a single wire electrical terminal. The shortest distance between the terminal wire and the terminal plate is at one end of the plate. (See http.//paradigmphysics.com/Asym-quant-mechanics.pdf for a cross sectional illustration). When the plate is rotated at sufficient angle away from the wire along the edge closest to the wire (see cross sectional illustration) it can generate a thrusting capacitance field. The plates and wires are configured in a triangular form, the structure being made of very light materials (the plates made of tinfoil). When this configuration is hung from the ceiling with the wires and plates being given oppositional charges, the structure swings against gravity while emitting a detectable air flow out the back in opposition to the direction of swing. The capacitance field generated by the opposite charges exhibit a demonstrable vectored thrusting force. The amount of thrust is determined by the angle of rotation. Greater angles of rotation— those approaching 90°— exhibit more thrust than lesser angles of rotation. This fact was experimentally confirmed.

While the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor has been known for many years, it has been excluded from professional electronics as an “aberration” presented only by amateur proponents. Since conventional electronics theory cannot explain the phenomenon, that phenomenon will not be allowed as data. This is not the first time that established science has disallowed aberrant data. In 1834, J.S. Russell presented the evidence for his soliton water wave to the Royal Academy. The phenomenon was disallowed as a physical phenomenon (but accepted in theoretical mathematics) until it was fully explained in  the book “The Quantum Dimension” issued in 2009.

Quantum-dimensional physics can explain the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor— taking it out of the category of “aberrant electronics” and giving it design capability. In the first place, conventional electronics theory cannot account for the fact that the charge of the wire is actually  being multiplied by the asymmetry. This fact is revealed by the quantum open-energy integral which does not exist for the conventional calculus of contemporary electronics theory. (See http.//paradigmphysics.com/Asym-quant-mechanics.pdf for the quantum open-energy integral). The quantum integral shows that the charge of the wire is actually being increased by the greater angles of rotation being used by the thrusting capacitor.

However, this increase in charge due to angle cannot fully explain the thrusting characteristics of the capacitor. The greatest contribution to asymmetrical charge increase of the wire is plate width, not angle of rotation. If the blade (plate) is the same width as the minimum distance of separation between wire and plate, then maximum rotation increases wire charge by 170%. If, however, the blade (plate) width is four times distance then maximum rotation increases wire charge by only 105%. Angle of rotation determines thrust. But thrust cannot be explained by simple charge multiplication due to angle of rotation because that charge multiplication varies by blade width.

The real explanation of thrust (swing against gravity)  is the vectoring of the field-force due to asymmetry. The normal vector of force between parallel-plate capacitors is 90° to the plates. For the asymmetrical capacitor, the vector of force is still 90° to the single plate. As the plate is rotated relative to the wire and this rotation approaches 90°, this vector of force begins to approach 90° against the wire/plate configuration, thus creating thrust. ( to see force configuration, click on The Asymmetrical Thrusting Capacitor Illustration above). The distance “r” in the illustration increases as the angle of rotation increases.  Wire charge is also increased by the quantum open-energy integral. That is, as the plate is rotated towards 90°, the wire’s charge is increased enough to sustain the vector of force emanating from the plate at these angles.

The application of the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor to the nuclear capacitor is obvious. The nuclear capacitor’s field strength is multiplied by suppressed beta decay to approach an equivalence of 512 MeV. To be able to project this high electron voltage field in a single direction along the tube of the accelerator will give this electron voltage equivalence to the whole length of the accelerator tube. That is, we will be able to duplicate the high electron voltage per meter available only in the most expensive accelerators such as the CERN or Fermi accelerators. However, further research is needed to make this possible. We still know nothing about the polarity of the field projected by the asymmetrical thrusting capacitor. Only further research can answer this necessary question for final capacitor design.
LDD
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Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Understanding Nuclear Capacitance and the Accelerator Fuel Pellet

The new Uranium/Thorium-234 fuel for the accelerator has arrived and proved sufficiently energetic. The rock sample has been successfully pulverized in preparation for producing the accelerator fuel pellet. However, an issue has arisen as to the manufacturing of the pellet for insertion. Should a binder be used or should the pellet simply be pressed into form? The correct answer is "NEITHER!!!!!!"

 

An understanding of how the pellet must be manufactured requires an understanding of the way that the pellet's nuclear capacitance field differs from the capacitance field provided by the circuit-driven power supply. Nuclear capacitance doesn't encounter electrical resistance as does circuit-driven capacitance. In place of electrical resistance the asymmetrical nuclear capacitor (the electron/proton orbital structure is reviewed in our "New Form of Nuclear Energy" video), that asymmetrical nuclear capacitance field replaces "current resistance" with "kinetic energy" from the attached proton. 

 

The energy from the nucleus is independent of the field; from the field's electron voltage (controlled by the orbital) and the field's charge which has now become a dependent variable. Electrical resistance has no such independent variability with respect to the capacitance field and, therefore, cannot control "charge" independently of "voltage" as can the nuclear capacitance field. When the pellet's nuclear capacitance field is integrated into the circuit-driven capacitance field, nuclear energy increases "charge" by increasing the frequency of beta-electron discharges. These electron discharges are then integrated into the current of the circuit-driven capacitor. This process, of course, is much more complicated than has been reviewed here.

 

Returning to the design of the Uranium/Thorium-234 fuel pellet. Nothing should interfere with the beta discharges such that they are prevented from streaming to the anode terminal of the power supply and thus enter into the current. A binder might prevent streaming as might pressing the powder into form. The answer is that the powder must be formed using a very thin paper made into a cylinder. Tests show that thin paper does interfere with beta particles produced by the U/Th-234 fuel cell.

 

LDD 

4:40 pm mst          Comments


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